The catch here is we are not allowed to use a temporary memory. So the following solution is not acceptable:
# NOT OKAY def swapper(a, b) t = a a = b b = a [a, b] end # btw, it is cheating to just return [b, a].
So how to we store information about two numbers in one ‘buffer’? Bit manipulation is the answer.
The thing you need to remember is the XOR operator. We note that if we XOR a number with itself, we get 0. Let us use this to our benefit. We can swap the two numbers if we can rewrite this equation and somehow not lose any information
# a is the first number, b is the second number a = a^b^a b = b^a^b
Note that in the first case we XOR ‘a’ twice to get rid if it. So essentially, we are saying
a = b. But this will screw up our second equation as it will become
b = b^(b)^b
And that is just equal to
b = b. But, if we have an intermediate step, we can rewrite our function
def swapper(a, b) a = a^b b = b^a # which is b^(a^b) = a a = a^b # which is (a^b)^a = b [a, b] end